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Alexandrine Parakeet

The Alexandrine Parakeet (Psittacula eupatria) has the forecrown, lores and crown bright green, merging to lavender-blue on cheeks, ear-coverts and back of the crown; thin dark line from the back of the cere to eye ring; narrow black band from the base of bill, laterally across the base of the cheeks, that binds with a wide collar pink around the back of the neck. Nape, the mantle, scapulars, rump and uppertail-coverts greenish-grey. Upperwing-coverts smaller brown; rest of upperwing-coverts green (brighter and emerald body feathers). The primaries and secondaries greyish green with dark tips to the vane previous interns, Blackish below. Underwing-coverts gray-green. The underparts brighter yellowish green, chest with grayish tint. Upper, the tail light green with yellow tip; undertail, golden yellow.

Bill red with paler tip: cere whitish; irises pale yellow; legs rose gray. The female no black and pink markings neck and it is generally duller. The immature It resembles the female (The males are sometimes distinguished by larger size).

 

Classification

Kingdom Animalia

Phylum Chordata

Class Aves

Order Psittaciformes

Family Psittacidae

Genus Psittacula

Species Psittacula eupatria

 

Habitat and Distribution:

The Alexandrine parakeet is native to south and Southeast Asia, from Pakistan and Nepal, south to Sri Lanka and east to Vietnam, with the subspecies occurring in different regions. It has been introduced to several countries including Bahrain, Iran, Turkey, United Arab Emirates and Yemen. The Alexandrine parakeet, along with several other parakeet species, has been spotted in European cities, including London and Amsterdam. The Alexandrine Parakeet It is distributed in a variety of wet and dry forests and woodlands, but also they are seen in cultivated areas, mangroves (for example, of Rhizophora mueronata on the islands of the Bay of Bengal) and coconut plantations, mainly in the lowlands up 900 meters above sea level; on Punjab province (Pakistan) extend areas of subtropical pines (Pinus roxburghii) and into irrigated plantations in desert areas; ascend to the foothills of Himalaya in areas of trees (will Shorea) and riparian forests, rarely above the 1.600 m. Usually they found in small groups, but sometimes they form large flocks where food is plentiful and communal roosts, where birds can come together in one big tree.

 

Breeding:

The breeding season usually from November to December and from March to April, depending on the location (for example, February to March in the Punjab and Andaman Islands and from December to February in the center Burma). The average size clutch is of 2-4 eggs measuring 34,0 x 26,9 mm. The incubation period average is 28 days usually after the placement of the second egg. The chicks leave the nest at about seven weeks of age. They are bred for about three weeks and usually are weaned between the 12 – 16 weeks of age. The Alexandrine parakeet is reported to live for up to 30 years.

The nest of the Alexandrine Parakeet They found in tree cavities (for example, of Dalbergia, Shorea or Salmalia), palms or, very rarely, buildings, but generally far from human settlements. The nest It comprises a chamber filled with wood shavings produced by barbets or woodpeckers during excavation or extension of the cavity; entry generally clean round.

 

Diet and Feeding:

The Alexandrine parakeet feeds on a variety of seeds, flowers, buds, nectar and fruits. It is normally found in small flocks, but larger groups may congregate where food is in abundance or in communal roosts at dusk.

Considered serious pest in some places: the 70% their diet Pakistan comes from cultivated areas.

It feeds mainly early in the morning and afternoon.

Known foods include guava (Psidium guajava), nectar Salmalia, Butea and Erythrina, fleshy petals Bassia latifolia and young leaves of vegetables.

The situation in Afghanistan of the Alexandrine Parakeet is uncertain, possibly some group in the northeast corner, about Jalalabad.

In Pakistan, isolated colonies Are and Peshawar, most widespread and common in irrigated lowlands Punjab; They are distributed from Punjab (India), foothills Himalaya and South of Nepal, throughout the India and Sri Lanka, and east through Bangladesh.

In Bhutan and Assam in Burma Central and Southern (not found in northern), extending from northern Thailand, Central and North Cambodia and Laos and north to central and southern Viet Nam

Present at the Islas Andaman (no al on Ten Degree Channel) and Narcondam (India) and in the Coco Islands (Bangladesh), Bay of Bengal.

Seasonal movements in some areas and in other locally nomadic.

Generally common, but much rarer in the east and sporadically distributed by South India.

Decreasing in Sri Lanka, where it is now rare, especially in the north.

Sharp declines in Thailand and probably in other parts of Indochina.

His appearance around some urban areas could be due to leaks.

Introduced in parts of Europe (Germany, Belgium, Netherlands, Middle East (Turkey, Bahrein, United Arab Emirates, Iran) and Japan.

• Current red list of UICN: Near-threatened

• Population trend: Decreasing

This species has been upgraded from Least concern based on new information on population trends. Is listed as Near-threatened, Since, although it is still common in some areas and their status is clouded by wild populations, It is suspected to be subjected to population decline moderately fast due to the continuing loss of habitat, to unsustainable levels of exploitation, the pursuit and capture.

The Alexandrine Parakeet It is widely captured and sold as bird cage.

In Cambodia, nests theft and capture adults, They represent the main threats, It is one of the most sought after birds (F. Goes in some. 2013).

Despite the virtual disappearance of the species Thailand, still they appear in pigeons illegal trade in bird markets Bangkok, Although, possibly, its origin is Cambodia (P. Ronda in a little. 2013).

The illegal trade, and the destruction of nesting sites, threat to species Pakistan (S. Khan in a little. 2013). Also, It reported that the species is threatened by extensive poaching at the hands of local tribes Gujarat (V. Vyas in some. 2013).

Habitat loss and degradation are also grave threats. In Cambodia, use changes in the lowlands it has been rapid (R. Timmins in some. 2013) and rates of degradation and loss of lowland forests is expected to impact more on the species (F. Goes in some. 2013). Conversion rates of habitat Laos They are described as severe (JW Duckworth in litt. 2013).

 

Conservation Actions Proposed:

– Conduct periodic surveys to monitor the population trend of the species.

– Conduct surveys and assess the situation in Pakistan (S. Khan in a little. 2013).

– Monitor rates of habitat loss and degradation through the distribution of the species.

– Quantify the impact of harvesting for trade.

– Enforcing trade restrictions.

– Carry out awareness raising activities to discourage the capture and trade.

– Increase the amount of suitable habitat that receives protection.

 

The Alexandrine Parakeet is a popular bird among poultry. It is ideal for outdoor aviaries and can not tolerate temperatures below 5 ° C. They reproduce well in aviaries. This Psittacula It is one of the oldest species of captive parrots Eurasian continent. Named after the legendary Emperor Alexander the Great, I had numerous specimens exported by his legionnaires back to several Mediterranean countries. Since then, this parrot has been popular with the nobles of all countries Anatolia, European and Mediterranean Empire.

This is a kind Active, He likes water and readily accepts different or new foods. It has a strong peak and therefore it is important to keep the hanger without toxicity without chemicals as disinfectants, fungicides, insecticides or pesticides. The Alexandrine Parakeet, like other parrots, They are among the best imitators.

With regard to its longevity, According to sources, a specimen was still alive after 30 years in captivity. In captivity, these parrots have been known that they can raise from the 4 years of age.

These birds Smart They make good pets for those willing to provide ongoing obedience training. If neglected, or appropriate training is given, the Alexandrine Parakeet it becomes prone to tear the feathers and other behavioral problems. The large and powerful beak of the parrot has a strong bite and therefore not recommended as a pet for children. a large cage is required to accommodate their beautiful, long narrow tail.

It is not a difficult species to breed, in fact usually successful.